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Essay代写中如何通过改述来避免抄袭?

“Paraphrase”这个词作为名词的中文意思为:“解码”。但是这样的解释很牵强,说不通。那么它到底是什么意思?其实,它的意思是说用你自己的词汇提取并复述另一个源文件的词汇。这样,就可以保留原文的意思,避免了照搬原文的措辞,而且通过turnitin 检测时被指抄袭。所以,我们在这里可以把“paraphrase”理解为:“改述”更恰当些。通常在论文代写中,改述的内容比引用的内容要多。而对于报告或研究论文,可能需要收集对论文很重要但不值得直接引用的背景类的内容。而在技术essay代写中,实际上又很少使用直接引用的内容。

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改述的总体思路

关于改述,总的来说你可以这样做:

1. 就是把文章仔细读几遍;

2. 找出它的要点;

3. 然后把原文章放在一边;

4. 试着在不看原文的情况下用你自己的话重新写出要点。换句话说,就是给自己解释一下你读的这篇文章。

5. 写完后,把改述的草稿放在一边,继续看其他的东西,或者做其他的事情。把你的注意力转移到其他事情上就行,这会使你和原文之间产生距离。也可以说,让你头脑清醒一下,删除对原文的记忆。当你返回过来,你会有一个全新的视角。你对原文的准确记忆会在某种程度上消失,你会更容易专注于自己的措辞和句子结构。

6. 此时,还是不看原文,把你改述的草稿润色一下。在这个过程中,你会发现你在用自己的语言表达原文的意思。

7. 编辑过后,将你改述的草稿与原文进行比较。看看是否你改述的草稿能准确传达原文的意思。还有它们的不同之处是否足以避免抄袭的嫌疑。

你可能会发现重复这个过程几次会很有用的。换句话说,修改你改述的草稿。仔细检查并将其与原文进行比较,以确定你所写的内容成为原创,并完整改述了原文的基本信息。

改述的具体方法

1. 把主动句变为被动句,反之把被动句变为主动句。这样的意思就是说把原本的主语和宾语的顺叙颠倒一下,并且把动词变为被动形式。但是也要注意不要改变原句的意思哦!

2. 改变词性。英语中的词汇,大多数都是多个词性共存的,因为他们的词根都是一样的。有时我们可以把他们互用。所以当我们想要使用一个名词的意思的时候,我们可以换做它的动词来进行表述。

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Acceptable Paraphrase: Changed Voice and Changed Parts of Speech

Researchers point out that in attempting to implement economic growth, industry is often favored over health: government may subsidize certain forms of agriculture and food production, contribute to tobacco consumption in nations where it owns the industry and otherwise promote growth of industries that pollute. (Venkat Narayan et. al, 2011).

3. 把从句改为短语,反之把短语改为从句。正如我们日常所学习的:在英语中我们可以把一个复杂的复合长句切割成多个小句子一样,我们也可以把那些主句后面的从句变为某一短语,或者把短语表达的意思改写成一句从句。

Original:

The prevalence and impact of non-communicable diseases continue to grow. Chronic diseases account for 60% of all deaths worldwide, and 80% of these deaths occur in low-or middle-income countries, where the toll is disproportionate during the prime productive years of youth and middle age.

(Source: Venkat Narayan, K.M., , Ali, M.K., and Koplan, J. (2010, September 23). Global noncomunicable diseases – where worlds meet. The New England Journal of Medicine, 363; 13. 1196-1198. Retrieved from nejm.org at MIT Libraries.)

Acceptable paraphrase: Changed Clause to Phrase

The increasing spread of non-communicable diseases can be seen in figures that show these diseases are responsible for 60% of all deaths on the planet, and that in countries where the population is primarily of low or middle income, the impact is greatest, often focusing on those who are young or middle-aged (Venkat Narayan et. al, 2011).

4. 改变句子的结构。主要是指把句子的表达顺序颠倒一下。比如把倒叙的句子改为顺叙的句子,但是在改变之后,需要注意一下上下句的连接,不要太生硬。如果有必要用些承上启下的词句来适应过度。

5. 把所有非通用的单词使用同义词。你要记住,无论是中文的文章还是英文的文章,它们都很忌讳重复使用某一个词或者句子来表述同一个意思。当我们想改述一篇文章时,我们更应该注意这一点,更要避免出现和原文雷同的多个词组。

Original:

Like drought, excess rainfall and flooding can also contribute to epidemics of waterborne infectious diseases, in this case due to poor sanitation resulting from runoff from overwhelmed sewage lines or the contamination of water by livestock.

(Source: Shuman, E., M.D. (2010, March 25). Global climate change and infectious diseases. New England Journal of Medicine; 362, 12, 1061-1063. Retrieved from nejm.org at MIT Libraries.)

Acceptable paraphrase: Used synonyms

An overabundance of rainfall can also be a factor in spreading infectious diseases carried by water, usually as a result of overflowing sewers and pollution from farm animals (Shuman, 2010).

Acceptable paraphrase: Changed sentence structure

When there is an overabundance of rainfall, two situations can occur: sewers can overflow and water can become polluted by the presence of livestock, both of which can lead to outbreaks of waterborne diseases (Shuman, 2010).

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6. 以上五种方法的综合使用。记住:目标就是重新表述信息,使原文的意思出现在你自己的文章中,而不需要原文的措辞。

Original:

We do not yet understand all the ways in which brain chemicals are related to emotions and thoughts, but the salient point is that our state of mind has an immediate and direct effect on our state of body. (Source: Siegel, B. (1986). Love, Medicine and Miracles (p. 69). New York: Harper and Row.)

Acceptable paraphrase #1:

Siegel (1986) writes that although the relationship between brain chemistry and thoughts and feelings is not fully understood, we do know that our psychological state affects our physical state.

作者运用了哪些改述方法?

• 使用了同义词;

• 改变了句子结构;

• 把动词变为被动形式;

• 引用来源。

Acceptable paraphrase #2:

Siegel (1986) writes that the relationship between the chemicals in the brain and our thoughts and feelings remains only partially understood. He goes on to say, however, that one thing is clear: our mental state affects our bodily state.

作者运用了哪些改述方法?

• 使用了同义词;

• 改变了句子结构 (一个复杂的句子变成为两个简单句子);

• 把动词变为被动形式;

• 改变了词性;

• 引用来源。

有了以上那些方法,还是不够的。最重要的是多练习,多去分析那些失败的改述案例,以便我们更多地总结出自己的一套方法论。最后给大家展示两个失败的改述案例,你最好自己总结一下失败在了哪里,例子如下:

Original:

We do not yet understand all the ways in which brain chemicals are related to emotions and thoughts, but the salient point is that our state of mind has an immediate and direct effect on our state of body. (Source: Siegel, B. (1986). Love, Medicine and Miracles (p. 69). New York: Harper and Row.)

Unacceptable paraphrase #1:

Siegel (1986) writes that we still do not know all the ways in which brain chemistry is related to emotions and thoughts, but the important point is that our mental state has an immediate and direct effect on our physical state.

为何这是不可接受的改述?

• 作者保留了同意句子的结构。

• 作者只使用了几个同义词来改变原文的词语,其他词语都是在原文使用的。

• 虽然在开头作者标明原文的来源,结果是抄袭。

Unacceptable paraphrase #2:

According to Siegel (1986), our mind affects our body quickly and directly, although we do not yet understand every aspect of how brain chemicals relate to emotions and thoughts.

为何这是不可接受的改述?

• 虽然作者改变了句子的结构,他直接使用了原文的关键词;

• 虽然在开头作者标明原文的来源,结果是抄袭。

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当你在论文代写中需要运用别人的话语和观点,你肯定应该学会如何改述哪些信息。还要学会如何标明你用了什么来源,如何避免通过turnitin检测以后被指抄袭?这样一来,连整理两页的论文,都需要花好多时间啊。我们AcademicSaviour专业essay代写机构建议为确保你的论文会拿到高成绩与好评语,最好找专业论文代写写手。我们的写手24/7为你工作,在短时间内帮你撰写100%原创、无抄袭的论文。如果你遇到了困难或需要帮助的话请随时联系我们AcademicSaviour微信:academicsavior QQ:800825305

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