如何降低论文重复率?有效的paraphrase方法与关键词替换技巧

如何降低论文重复率?有效的paraphrase方法与关键词替换技巧

撰写学术论文的时候,学生经常需要收集对论文很重要,但不值得直接引用的背景类的内容。但是很多学生担心的问题就是“如何避免论文turnitin查重时的高重复率?”。在这种情况下,学生需要进行英文论文改写,为此大家不妨掌握一些paraphrase技巧。“Paraphrase”,即“改述”,是指用你自己的词汇提取并复述另一个源文件的词汇。这样,在保留原文的意思同时,可以避免照搬原文措辞的现象,从而降低论文重复率。不过,写多了之后,很多留学生会觉得如果不照抄原题,都没法好好说话了。但如果你的论文中都只使用几个关键词,老师一看就知道你的词汇量很差、表达能力很弱。问题就来了,我们到底该如何paraphrase呢?如何避免频繁使用关键词 (key words)呢?今天我们Academic Saviour留学生论文代写网来分享一下几种有效的语句改述方法和关键词替换技巧,而且提供可以代替“导致”(to cause) 这个在学术论文中比较常用词的单词表。我们一起来学“好好说话”!

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改述的总体思路

Paraphrase的过程一般可以分为以下7个步骤:

1. 把文章仔细读几遍;

2. 找出它的要点;

3. 然后把原文章放在一边;

4. 试着在不看原文的情况下用你自己的话重新写出要点。换句话说,就是给自己解释一下你读的这篇文章。

5. 写完后,把改述的草稿放在一边,继续看其他的东西,或者做其他的事情。把你的注意力转移到其他事情上就行,这会使你和原文之间产生距离。也可以说,让你头脑清醒一下,删除对原文的记忆。当你返回过来,你会有一个全新的视角。你对原文的准确记忆会在某种程度上消失,你会更容易专注于自己的措辞和句子结构。

6. 此时,还是不看原文,把你paraphrase的草稿润色一下。在这个过程中,你会发现你在用自己的语言表达原文的意思。

7. 编辑过后,将你改述的草稿与原文进行比较。看看是否你改述的草稿能准确传达原文的意思。还有它们的不同之处是否足以避免抄袭的嫌疑。

这些步骤会给你带来很大的帮助,让你提高论文的原创度,顺利通过turnitin查重。下面我们来讨论改述的具体方法。

改述的具体方法

1. 把主动句变为被动句,反之把被动句变为主动句

这样的意思就是说把原本的主语和宾语的顺叙颠倒一下,并且把动词变为被动形式。但是也要注意不要改变原句的意思哦!

2. 改变词性

英语中的词汇,大多数都是多个词性共存的,因为他们的词根都是一样的。有时我们可以把他们互用。所以当我们想要使用一个名词的意思的时候,我们可以换做它的动词来进行表述。

Original:

Current political and economic incentives favor industry and other interest groups at the expense of health: consider the subsidies paid for corn-based agriculture and mass-produced processed foods, the tobacco revenue generated in countries with a government-owned tobacco industry, industrial growth in the face of environmental pollution, and the spread of the sedentary automobile-and-television culture.

(Source: Venkat Narayan, K.M., Ali, M.K., and Koplan, J. (2010, September 23). Global noncomunicable diseases – where worlds meet. The New England Journal of Medicine, 363; 13. 1196-1198. Retrieved from nejm.org at MIT Libraries.)

Acceptable Paraphrase: Changed Voice and Changed Parts of Speech

Researchers point out that in attempting to implement economic growth, industry is often favored over health: government may subsidize certain forms of agriculture and food production, contribute to tobacco consumption in nations where it owns the industry and otherwise promote growth of industries that pollute. (Venkat Narayan et. al, 2011).

3. 把从句改为短语,反之把短语改为从句

在英语中我们可以把一个复杂的复合长句切割成多个小句子一样,我们也可以把那些主句后面的从句变为某一短语,或者把短语表达的意思改写成一句从句。

Original:

The prevalence and impact of non-communicable diseases continue to grow. Chronic diseases account for 60% of all deaths worldwide, and 80% of these deaths occur in low-or middle-income countries, where the toll is disproportionate during the prime productive years of youth and middle age.

(Source: Venkat Narayan, K.M., , Ali, M.K., and Koplan, J. (2010, September 23). Global noncomunicable diseases – where worlds meet. The New England Journal of Medicine, 363; 13. 1196-1198. Retrieved from nejm.org at MIT Libraries.)

Acceptable paraphrase: Changed Clause to Phrase

The increasing spread of non-communicable diseases can be seen in figures that show these diseases are responsible for 60% of all deaths on the planet, and that in countries where the population is primarily of low or middle income, the impact is greatest, often focusing on those who are young or middle-aged (Venkat Narayan et. al, 2011).

4. 改变句子的结构

主要是指把句子的表达顺序颠倒一下。比如把倒叙的句子改为顺叙的句子,但是在改变之后,需要注意一下上下句的连接,不要太生硬。如果有必要用些承上启下的词句来适应过度。

5. 把所有非通用的单词使用同义词

你要记住,无论是中文的文章还是英文的文章,它们都很忌讳重复使用某一个词或者句子来表述同一个意思。当我们想改述一篇文章时,我们更应该注意这一点,更要避免出现和原文雷同的多个词组。

Original:

Like drought, excess rainfall and flooding can also contribute to epidemics of waterborne infectious diseases, in this case due to poor sanitation resulting from runoff from overwhelmed sewage lines or the contamination of water by livestock.

(Source: Shuman, E., M.D. (2010, March 25). Global climate change and infectious diseases. New England Journal of Medicine; 362, 12, 1061-1063. Retrieved from nejm.org at MIT Libraries.)

Acceptable paraphrase: Used synonyms

An overabundance of rainfall can also be a factor in spreading infectious diseases carried by water, usually as a result of overflowing sewers and pollution from farm animals (Shuman, 2010).

Acceptable paraphrase: Changed sentence structure

When there is an overabundance of rainfall, two situations can occur: sewers can overflow and water can become polluted by the presence of livestock, both of which can lead to outbreaks of waterborne diseases (Shuman, 2010).

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6. 以上五种方法的综合使用

值得一提的是,paraphrase的目的就是重新表述信息,使原文的意思出现在你自己的文章中,而不需要原文的措辞。

Original:

We do not yet understand all the ways in which brain chemicals are related to emotions and thoughts, but the salient point is that our state of mind has an immediate and direct effect on our state of body.

(Source: Siegel, B. (1986). Love, Medicine and Miracles (p. 69). New York: Harper and Row.)

Acceptable paraphrase #1:

Siegel (1986) writes that although the relationship between brain chemistry and thoughts and feelings is not fully understood, we do know that our psychological state affects our physical state.

作者运用了哪些改述方法?

  • 使用了同义词;
  • 改变了句子结构;
  • 把动词变为被动形式;
  • 引用来源。

Acceptable paraphrase #2:

Siegel (1986) writes that the relationship between the chemicals in the brain and our thoughts and feelings remains only partially understood. He goes on to say, however, that one thing is clear: our mental state affects our bodily state.

作者运用了哪些改述方法?

  • 使用了同义词;
  • 改变了句子结构 (一个复杂的句子变成为两个简单句子);
  • 把动词变为被动形式;
  • 改变了词性;
  • 引用来源。

有了以上那些方法,还是不够的。最重要的是多练习,多去分析那些失败的改述案例,以便我们更多地总结出自己的一套方法论,从而把论文重复率控制在最低水平。最后给大家展示两个失败的改述案例,你最好自己总结一下失败在了哪里,例子如下:

Original:

We do not yet understand all the ways in which brain chemicals are related to emotions and thoughts, but the salient point is that our state of mind has an immediate and direct effect on our state of body.

(Source: Siegel, B. (1986). Love, Medicine and Miracles (p. 69). New York: Harper and Row.)

Unacceptable paraphrase #1:

Siegel (1986) writes that we still do not know all the ways in which brain chemistry is related to emotions and thoughts, but the important point is that our mental state has an immediate and direct effect on our physical state.

为何这是不可接受的改述?

  • 作者保留了同意句子的结构。
  • 作者只使用了几个同义词来改变原文的词语,其他词语都是在原文使用的。
  • 虽然在开头作者标明原文的来源,结果是抄袭。

Unacceptable paraphrase #2:

According to Siegel (1986), our mind affects our body quickly and directly, although we do not yet understand every aspect of how brain chemicals relate to emotions and thoughts.

为何这是不可接受的改述?

  • 虽然作者改变了句子的结构,他直接使用了原文的关键词;
  • 虽然在开头作者标明原文的来源,结果是抄袭。

关键词替换技巧

论文的开头、论点、论证和结尾这些重要部分都需要围绕话题的关键词去写作。但是,这并不意味着你的论文应该由几个关键词组成!如果我们经常重复相同的单词,这就能导致论文总成绩的扣分。当老师评估你的论文时,一定会有单独评估词汇的专栏,因此你使用的词汇越丰富,获得高分的机会就越大。接下我们来看看几个关键词替换技巧和例子。

1. 同近义词

这应该是最简单粗暴的方法了,妥妥地炫耀词汇量。

government → authority

finance → fund

2. 同根词

另外一个保证精准的方式就是改变词类,进行表达的替换与保留词根。

government → governmental

art → artistic

finance → financial

使用这个方式的好处就是,可以使变了词类的关键词,和上下的其他意思结合起来,这样表达甚至会更加简洁一些。

3. 前后加润色(副词、形容词)

如果你完全无法替换某一单词的话,那就可以润色一下该单词,就是说前面或后面加上形容词或副词。这样表达会更加精准一些,而且这也算是替换。

artists → creative artists/ art industry/ arts institutions

government → local/ central government

4. 主被动转化

我们原来这样写过:“政府应该支持艺术”。 有时候也可以逆向写:“艺术需要政府的补助/ 艺术需要政府的支持”,或者“政府认为其他方面需要更多补助“,或者 ”谁值得收到政府的补助“ 等等。

Governments finance arts → artists require help from the state/ rely on governmental assistance

5. 情景设定

改变题目的关键点作为一种假定的情况,后来在主句中来描述具体优点和缺点。

常用的句字开头是 if/ when/ because/with/ how/ whether/

When policy makers decide how to allocate budget, …

If governments need to make better budgetary allocation, …

6. 人→ 物

如果关键词是人物,那我们就可以把他变成为人所拥有的东西,如果是物件,我们就做得相反,把它变成为创作它的人。

artist → art work/ creative works of artists

7. 解释

论文的标题一般是直接的陈述,就是几个词的简洁表达。我们可以把这些单词变成需要解释的词语,就是说把单词解释给完全不了解该题目的人。使用定语从句是最常用的办法之一。

artists → people who are engaged in an activity related to creating art

再举一个例子:

题目:Multicultural societies bring more benefits than drawbacks for a country?

关键词:Multicultural societies

关键词替换:

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“TO CAUSE” 可以用什么词语代替?

“To cause”,即“导致”,是在英文论文中最常用的词语之一,同学们可以用下列词语来代替这个词:

普通表达:lead to/ cause/ result in/ bring about;

高级表达:give rise to/ be responsible for/ account for;

高级替换:create/ breed/ produce/ induce/ generate.

我们来提供 5 个简单句子的例子,让大家看看怎么运用上述的一些高级替换“to cause”的方式。这样就把简单的句子变成更加高级的句型。

第一个例子

简单句:Too much work can result in stress and poor health.

高级替换: Too much work are responsible for stress and poor health.

扩展:parenthesis + which

推结果: Too much work, the most typical sign of modern life, is responsible for stress and poor health, which makes the working class burdened with a soaring medical cost.

第二个例子

简单句:Rising temperature causes the melting of the polar ice cap.

高级替换:Rising temperature accounts for the melting of the polar ice cap.

扩展:parenthesis + which

推结果:Rising temperature, the most typical sign of climate change, accounts for the melting of the polar ice cap, which raises the sea level and contributes to the displacement of people living in coastal areas.

第三个例子

简单句: Living alone in an unfamiliar culture can cause homesickness.

高级替换:Living alone in an unfamiliar culture can breed homesickness.

扩展:parenthesis + which

推结果:Living alone in an unfamiliar culture, the most typical experience of international students, can breed homesickness, which makes them more vulnerable to difficulties both in life and in study.

第四个例子

简单句: A water crisis could lead to political conflicts or even wars.

高级替换:A water crisis could produce political conflicts or even wars.

扩展:parenthesis + which

推结果:A water crisis, the most typical challenge in underdeveloped nations, could produce political conflicts or even wars, which further worsens the living condition of the people in poverty there.

第五个例子

简单句:An unhealthy diet can cause various health problems.

高级替换:An unhealthy diet can give rise to various health problems.

扩展:parenthesis + which

推结果:An unhealthy diet, the most common option for the working class, can give rise to various health problems, which may pose a threat to people’s longevity.

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其他场景搭配:

导致偏见:lead to prejudice;

导致改变:bring a change;

导致悲剧:lead to a tragedy;

导致心脏病:cause a heart attack;

导致流言:cause tongues to wag;

导致失败:result in failures;

导致死亡:lead to death;

导致毁灭:result in the destruction;

导致成长和转变:result in growth and transformation;

导致抗药性:result in drug resistance;

导致危机:bring a crisis.

总而言之,在撰写英文论文的过程中,学生肯定需要借鉴别人的话语和观点,因此,除了标明资料来源之外,还要学会如何paraphrase并正确地进行其他学者的英文论文改写。希望我们提供的语句改述方法、关键词替换技巧及“to cause”替换词的分析能够帮助学生提高自己的写作水平,而且让论文重复率在合格范围内。当然,连整理两页的论文,都需要花费不少时间和精力。如果你还是不想花时间,可是想得到满意的成绩,可以直接联系我们Academic Savioir专业论文代写公司。我们资深的专家在短时间内帮你完成高分数的论文,让你轻松地通过turnitin查重!请随时联系我们的24 / 7在线客服。QQ:800825305